Environment Law Centre

student and academic staff member talking in the Liberty Building

Environment Law Centre

Academic disciplines postulate scientific ways to solve a problem. We established various centers of study at Lloyd. The idea is focused study of academic discipline, initiating pragmatic actions and providing significant services to the society. These are functional in the hands of a group of specially educated, globally trained and veteran national and international faculties with a group of enthused and consistent learners of this law school. These centers cultivate scientific thinking in students to bring about ideas and activities in this direction.

Lloyd Law College came up with the idea of Centers of Study, after our faculty Ms. Chhaya Bhardwaj mooted the idea of Environmental Law Center(ELC) in Sept. 2016. Since then we have established three more centers of study. ELC was started with an idea to sensitize society about environment degradation and sustainable development. This center focuses on the environmental sensitization and development of the Greater Noida - NCR-Delhi. The international community, thus, has recognized ELC and its best practices to have a trans-boundary impact. Lloyd Law College, Greater Noida in India started Environmental Law Centre with Ms. Chhaya as the founder head. It is a youth lead initiative focused on environmental education.

World has experienced paradigm changes since 2015 with the launch of Sustainable development Goals and Paris Agreement 2015. Global community has defined global agenda for global development upto 2030 and the local communities are not even aware about these changes. One needs awareness to initiate action. In order to bring the world a little closer to be aware and to act collectively for global golals and climate change in particular, Environmental Law Centre, Lloyd Law College is determined to undertake environmental education to bring students, lawyers, academicians and activists on a common platform to define ground level solutions to actual problems faced by local communities.

We also undertake independent research projects to contribute to the laws and policies in India. In 2018, we submitted comments on Draft National Forest Policy, 2018. Before that we have submitted comments on Waste Management Rules, 2017. We are proactively contributing to the policy and law making in environmental sector in India.

In furtherance to our objective we have adopted a strategy of “thinking globally and acting locally”. We have collaborated with United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network to further our objective of environmental education, awareness and partnerships for development.


Guest Lecture
Guest Lecture Series by Environmental Law Centre.

World Environment Day
World Environment Day, National Essay Writing Competition, 2017.

Winners of World Environment Day
Winners of World Environment Day, National Essay Writing Competition 2017.



3-v1 Goals

17 Goals to Transform Our World

In 2015, countries adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals. In 2016, the Paris Agreement on climate change entered into force, addressing the need to limit the rise of global temperatures.

Governments, businesses and civil society together with the United Nations are mobilizing efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Agenda by 2030. Universal, inclusive and indivisible, the Agenda calls for action by all countries to improve the lives of people everywhere.

We have selected ourstudents as our Sustainable Development Champions (SDC) to attain these goals in our campus, vicinity, locality, area, zones, district etc. and designated them with the working on specific 17 sustainable development goals;




No Poverty

Mr. Sarim khan


Zero Hunger

Ms. Shalini Yadav


Good Health & Well-Being

Mr. Chandrakant Prakash


Quality Education

Mr. Aakash Kesari


Gender equality

Ms. Akshita Sodhi


Clean Water and Sanitation

Mr. Sanket Kumar


Affordable & Clean Energy

Mr. Shubham Mishra


Decent Work & Economic Growth

Mr. Mukesh Singh


Industry Innovation and Infrastructure

Mr. Shubham Mishra


Reduced Inequalities

Ms. Akshita Sodhi


Sustainable Cities and Communities

Mr. Shivam Shukla


Responsible Consumption and Production

Mr. Raja Sharma


Climate Action

Ms. Prashita Mishra


Life Below Water

Mr. Atri Mandal 


Life on land

Ms. Prashita Mishra


Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

Mr. Vaibhav Shahi


Partnerships for Goals

Ms. Priyanshi Gupta




It’s very well-known that the protection of the environment has been a hot topic for a very long time. Time and time again, the agendas have been repeated and introduced with new methods and processes which prove to be ultimately futile. It pushes a curious individual to think that maybe all these reforms are a mere propagation of a hoax. That may be the bureaucrats and the politicians have created a huge facade along with the policymakers to blindfold the common man to see what is really going on and what is really there.

Since the Vedic age, the environment has been considered sacred and been put up to protection and conservation. It’s undeniable that the environment protection reforms have been revised, modified and improved since the very early ages because its importance was understood since the day one. But why there is no progress? These methods have been put in execution but people fall back to square one and the environment takes a toll on the actions of the humans. It is not getting conserved or protected, instead, it’s getting destroyed, very, very gradually.

What if, whatever we are doing, is wrong? Whatever steps and methods which are being taken are completely waste, and the environment is just going to the point of inevitability? Maybe the animals which have gone extinct in the sight of the conscious human sight, were supposed to go extinct? Maybe the polar ice caps were supposed to be melted and the global warming is nothing but a common phenomenon? We have to see both sides of a coin

Seafloor spreading, Pole Axis change, etc. are one of the new occurrences which affect the environment. It could either be bad or good for the mankind. It is believed that as we revolve around the sun, we are moving closer to it day by day. It very well explains the rise in temperature, as one of the factors. Maybe just like this natural process, which the mankind cannot control, is bringing the environment to the point where it is now and is going and whatever reforms which are being taken to prevent it from happening are nothing but a waste of time since natural power is far greater than the power of the mankind. Maybe, we just need to accept that we cannot stop this and try to find ways to adapt and refuel the resources in the forthcoming environment.

It is considered very unorthodox thinking and opinions over something so crucial and important. But, with all the pathos and hopeless vision of the future, maybe something could be done with all the eccentric ideas

Mohit dad & Shivamshekhar
Lloyd Law College.


Environment cell of Lloyd Law collage have done a survey in slum areas in Gr Noida. We have visited two places one is aacher and another is small slum area near delta1. We asked them about their problems. Our main objective is to find out that people living their are able to get 3 time meal in a day or not. We asked them about their problems, whether their children goes schools or not. Their condition are just mind disturbing. Their is lack of basis amenities such as proper employment, illiteracy, living conditions are making them more vulnerable and poor day by day.

We first went to aacher and the first person we meet is Arti,her age is almost 50. While talking with her we found that she was mentally disturbed. She told us that she had 6 children and only two are leaving with her.She is labour and her per day income is 300. Her children did not go to schools and they are not able to get 3 time meal in a day. We spoke to other people also living their and we find that many of them are labour and migrated from different places. Although they are able to get 3 time meal in a day but faces other problem like housing ,sanitation,water problems. We find that there are many children who wanted to go to schools but their situation didn't allow them.

Then we went to delta 1 area where people are living in miserable conditions. Their we found out that, there two type of people are living.The first one are those who are government workers and they are living their for metro work onces the metro work is over they will move to another place. They did not face any problem. Another are people living on footpath. Their conditions are miserable. All of them are labour and migrated from different places. Their conditions are vulnerable every one has same problem of sanitation,housing and water problem. Their children did not go to school, but one teacher come who teaches them everyday for 2 hour on road side. Their per day income is 300, but it depends some time they get work some time not.

In this place we first meet suman her age is about 35, on the question is she able to get 3 time meal in a day. She tell that it all depends on work, some time they get work so they have food and some time did not get work then they have to sleep without food. Then we meet Saheb singh his age is about 50. He also not able to get 3 time meal on the question of other problem they face " He said their are many problem, problem related to water, sanitation, housing, education. He also tell us that many people came every year to survey and see their situation but no one come forward to help them. Many government workers also come and go but no one return back to help them". Then we meet Maya, she had 4 children, they did not go to school. Her per day income is ₹250. Her problem is again same they are not afford to have 3 time meal. We talk to her son Bhinash, his age is 13 year and he wanted to become doctor. Although he did not go to school. Then we meet kushum, she had 3 children and her husband is dead. She was also a labour. she also did not manage to have 3 time meal in a day.

By- Shalini Yadav
B.A.;LL.B. Lloyd Law College.


A man without education is like a building without foundation. Education plays a very crucial role in our life as one can mitigate most of the challenges faced in his/her life. The knowledge that is attained through education helps open doors to a lot of opportunities for better prospects in career growth. While the number of years of schooling is important, so is the cognitive ability (measured by test scores) gained from those years. Education means preparing the individual for the future. Everyone should go through education as it act as a tool to deal with different tasks that they will need to perform in their lives. It also prepare one to participate in the economic, cultural and political life of the society.

Quality in education is a concept which is rapidly evolving over time, but has also different emphasis according to different national education sectors, cultures and different players in the education system- students, teachers, policymakers, the business community, unions, etc. Quality education is the education that best fits the present and the future needs of the particular learners in question and the community, given the particular circumstances and prospects. The quality concept also has to embrace the development of every member’s potential in every new generation. Basic skills, such as reading, writing and arithmetic, have to be regarded as essential parts of all quality education. The attainment of basic competencies is necessary before further progression can be made within a quality system.

Quality plays a very important role in education which needs to be focused on and not just increasing the number of year students spending in school, in order to promote economic development. Government need to focus on improving the quality of education as it would result in development of the nation. Blindly pouring money into public education system and falsely expecting to see positive outcomes would only increases the quantity of education, rather the government should focus on the quality of education instead of quantity.

Government should also focus on appointing well educated teachers in school, both government and private schools. These teachers should poses different qualities such as:

- knowledge of substantive areas and content;
- pedagogic skill, including the acquisition and ability to use a repertoire of teaching strategies;
- reflection and ability to be self-critical, the hallmark of teacher professionalism; - empathy, and commitment to the acknowledgement of the dignity of other;
- managerial competence, as teachers assume a range of managerial responsibilities within and outside the classroom

Quality Education means providing people right and better knowledge and prepare them for the future. Appointing well educated teachers will result in better knowledge to the students that will eventually lead to economic development of the nation.


Water water everywhere but not a drop to drink! If we look around, this English saying seems to be true. A great personality had one said that if world war 3 takes place, it would take because of water. On earth water occupies 70% of the area but drinkable water is just 30% and decreasing day by day. On the other hand Sanitisation is also emerging as a big in this so called modern world specially in India (Rural & semi-urban).

Clean water and Sanitisation is the main issue which is ignored on a large scale widely all across the globe.

Managing water supply can be difficult in rural areas. Of the 1.1 billion people without access to improved water sources worldwide, around 84% live in rural areas. Drinking-water quality is especially difficult to control and even in the most developed countries, small community water supplies frequently fail on basic microbiological quality. Rural communities have a different relationship to water than do urban dwellers. Water dominates every aspect of their lives. People in the countryside live off the land and depend on water to grow their crops. Scarce water supplies are used sparingly for household needs. Water is the source of their livelihood and, when unclean or mismanaged, the source of ill-health and continued poverty. Water contains many trace elements and minerals, which may be benign, beneficial or toxic. Everything depends on how much. While some minerals may be beneficial in low concentrations, most can be toxic in excess. Only a few chemicals - for instance, arsenic and fluoride - are thought to be major public health issues. The problems they and nitrate cause are most common in rural areas.

Where we need to Act:

It is estimated that it would cost about US$ 23 billion per year to achieve the international development target of halving the percentage of people unserved with improved water sources globally (currently at 18%) and improved sanitation services (currently at 40%) by the year 2015. But governments presently spend US$ 16 billion a year in building new infrastructure. The additional US$ 7 billion a year needed to supply good water and sanitation to some who lack it is less than one tenth of what Europe spends on alcoholic drinks each year, about the same as Europe spends on ice cream and half of what the United States spends each year on pet food. Compared to what governments expend on military weapons, the cost of providing people with the means to improve their health is small.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) are some of the most basic needs for human health and survival. WASH can also be crucial components in freeing people from poverty. Still, 1 out of 10 people do not have access to an improved source of drinking water and more than a third of the world's population does not have access to a hygienic means of basic sanitation. Adequate sanitation, together with good hygiene and safe water, are fundamental to good health and to social and economic development. That is why, in 2008, the Prime Minister of India quoted Mahatma Gandhi who said in 1923, “sanitation is more important than independence”. Improvements in one or more of these three components of good health can substantially reduce the rates of morbidity and the severity of various diseases and improve the quality of life of huge numbers of people, particularly children, in developing countries. Although linked, and often mutually supporting, these three components have different public health characteristics. This paper focuses on sanitation. It seeks to present the latest evidence on the provision of adequate sanitation, to analyse why more progress has not been made, and to suggest strategies to improve the impact of sanitation, highlighting the role of the health sector. It also seeks to show that sanitation work to improve health, once considered the exclusive domain of engineers, now requires the involvement of social scientists, behaviour change experts, health professionals, and, vitally, individual people. Throughout this paper, we define sanitation as the safe disposal of human excreta. The phrase “safe disposal” implies not only that people must excrete hygienically but also that their excreta must be contained or treated to avoid adversely affecting their health or that of other people.

Health impact and Sanitization:

Of human excreta, faeces are the most dangerous to health. One gram of fresh faeces from an infected person can contain around 106 viral pathogens, 106–108 bacterial pathogens, 104 protozoan cysts or oocysts, and 10–104 helminth eggs. The major faeco-oral disease transmission pathways are demonstrated in the “F Diagram” which illustrates the importance of particular interventions, notably the safe disposal of faeces, in preventing disease transmission.


River Yamuna is a major river of northern India. It is one of the most sacred rivers of our country. There are many Hindu temples that have been built across its banks. It is the largest tributary of river Ganga which originates from the Yamunotri glacier.

Yamuna, though being considered as one of the most sacred rivers in India, has become a dumping ground for sewage and waste. But at present it has become more of a “nullah”. The irony lies in the fact that we call it a holy river yet have taken it up as a task to end it- once and for all.

It is hard to ignore the strong stench that fills the air while driving across the Yamuna in Delhi—a regular route for thousands of people in the Capital. The cause? Gallons of untreated, unfiltered sewage that makes its way into shallow waters of this dying river every single day. According to estimates made by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi generates 3,800 million litres of sewage per day. More than half of this amount does not receive any sort of treatment and is allowed to flow into the Yamuna, unchecked.

“We currently have the capacity to treat 604 million gallons (2,290 million litres approx.) of sewage per day. At present, we are able to treat 450 million gallons (1,700 million litres approx.),” says RS Tyagi, Member and Engineer-in-Chief of the Delhi Jal Board, the agency responsible for the construction and maintenance of sewage treatment plants, treatment of domestic sewage and sewage-pumping stations and trunk sewers in the capital.[1]

Apparently river Yamuna has been termed as “Delhi’s lifeline”. The discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents have severely affected the quality of Yamuna River and now it falls under the category E, which makes it fit only for recreation and industrial cooling, completely ruling out the possibility for underwater life and domestic supply. Almost every year mass death of fishes is reported. Pollution levels in the Yamuna River have risen. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) load has increased by 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005: From 117 tonnes per day (TDP) in 1980 to 276 TDP in 2005. The Yamuna has been reduced to a small stream, draining industrial effluents, sewage, dirt and other toxic substances. There is an urgent need to take stringent measures to alleviate these pollution loads and save an ailing river.[2]

It is a very sad state of affairs. Any kind of aquatic life almost seizes to exist the moment this river enters the state of Delhi. There is almost no significant aquatic life in this stretch of the river. Although there is abundance of life before it enters Delhi. In fact a large number of wildlife sanctuaries are present around it. It is home to various kinds of fishes, crocodiles, river turtles and mugger crocodiles. Even fresh water Gangetic Dolphins can be found in some stretches of the river near Harimpur in Uttar Pradesh.

According to a report of the Central Pollution Control Board, the current level of DO in the river is only around 1 mg per litre, while it should be between 4 to 5 mg/l to sustain life.

Sushmita Sengupta, Deputy Water Programme Manager at the Centre for Science and Environment, quotes government data to substantiate these figures. According to numbers provided in the Lok Sabha, she says, the quantity of DO at Nizamuddin is 1.5 mg/l and at Okhla it is 2.4 mg/l.

“The formation of coliform bacteria is very high due to pollution. It is formed from raw sewage, and the Delhi stretch of Yamuna is no different than a sewer drain. This is a major factor discouraging aquatic life in the river,” Sengupta said.

Ammonia levels, which should to be at a maximum level of 1.2 mg/l, also shoot up to 12 mg/l at some points in the city.[3]

The high degree of pollution is not at all favorable for any kind of aquatic life. The main problem is the daily dumping of untreated sewage. Delhi is a highly populated state. The water treatment plants are not updated and the infrastructure is also lacking. Yamuna river have become one of the dirtiest rivers in the country. In Delhi around 3296 MLD (million litres per day) of sewage by virtue of drains out falling in Yamuna and approximately 3.5 lakh people live in the 62000 Jhuggis that have come up on the Yamuna river bed and its embankment.[4]

The water quality of Indian rivers have been categorized into 5 Classes; Class A being the best and Class E being the worst. It should come as no doubt that Yamuna has been put in Class E.

The Yamuna basin has seen rapid industrialization, urbanization and agricultural development since 1975.This has directly or indirectly affected the Yamuna. Moreover creation of river basins and human interference are also to be blamed.

The water quality is very poor. The Biological Oxygen Demand level ranges from 3 to 51 mg/L in several parts of the river. This is way above the permissible limit. Same is the situation with the Chemical Oxygen Demand level. The Dissolved Oxygen level has drastically decreased. It cannot be missed that this situation is being noted the moment this river enters Delhi through Palla. The river water quality before that is found to be normal.

The river water quality is continuously degrading since the pollution in the river is escalating on a daily basis. Industrial effluents are being dumped in the river. A report of CPCB[5] indicates that there were about 42 industrial units in Delhi directly polluting the Yamuna. Then comes the domestic waste water. The city’s water treatment plants are not doing good job at handling the situation. Much of the domestic waste water goes untreated and gets dumped in the river. Agriculture is also to be blamed.

Dumping of solid waste and garbage is one of the major problems in Yamuna River. As per the report of Yamuna Action Plan the content of suspended solids in Yamuna is 1000-10,000 mg/L and the permissible content of suspended solids is 100 mg/L. The main reason behind this is the high density of the population living in the city and the dumping of untreated water and solid waste into the river.[6]

There are several other sources of pollution too. People take bath in this river. Idols and floral offering are dumped in the river religious occasions.

It is high time that proper steps are to be taken to revert the state of river Yamuna. It won’t be an easy one, but it is something that needs to be done. Water which is being dumped in the river needs to be treated. Many more water treatment plants should be set up to decrease the load of the one’s which are present and working. Moreover the plants need an upgrade so as to become efficient.

If the government is lacking the finance, then it should take help from other NGOs, private companies and individuals who are willing to donate by making a change. Schemes and policies can be set up as required. This will lessen the financial burden of the government.

Improvement need to be done in the agricultural sector. Solid waste management needs to be improved. It should be made sure that plastics, newspapers, cans and other such materials do not find a way to the river. They need to be collected before that.

The public has to be made aware of the consequences of their actions. If this is not done, then all this effort taken by the government wouldn’t be much effective. A new Act may be passed if necessary to outline the Dos and DONTs, and people who don’t obey may be fined.

These are some of the steps that can be taken to bring about a change in the water of Yamuna. It won’t happen overnight but it sure will help bring it’s glory back, if not now, maybe in the next 20 years.

  1. Simar Singh, Why Untreated Sewage Continues To Be Dumped Into The Yamuna, NDTV, (Dec. 7, 2017, 12:25 AM), http://swachhindia.ndtv.com/untreated-sewage-continues-dumped-yamuna-6622/
  2. Anil Kumar Misra, A River about to Die: Yamuna, (Dec.7, 2017, 12:25 AM), http://file.scirp.org/Html/12-9401064_1806.htm
  3. Delhi’s waste chokes Yamuna of all aquatic life, (Dec.7, 2017, 12:25 AM), http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/Delhi%E2%80%99s-waste-chokes-Yamuna-of-all-aquatic-life/article14587041.ece
  4. “Yamuna Action Plan,” 1993. http://yap.nic.in/about-yap. asp
  5. Central Pollution Control Board, “Water Quality status of Yamuna River,” New Delhi, April 2000. http://www. cpcb.nic.in
  6. Anil Kumar Misra, A River about to Die: Yamuna, (Dec.7, 2017, 12:25 AM), http://file.scirp.org/Html/12-9401064_1806.htm

    Violence against women exists globally and has far reaching impact on the physical , mental health and on the overall wellbeing of women .The violent , the torturous ,and traumatic experiences that women undergo impair their functioning in all the domains .Women who came to shelter homes for care and protection are survivors of various forms of violence .It exists in all countries cutting across all boundaries ,cultures ,class , caste , race , age , ethnicity , socio economic status , education etc .

    Family as an agency of socialisation is also one of the most common grounds where violence against women takes place .Often women are faced to suffer in silence as it is a stigma and culturally incorrect to talk to others about the violence that they are undergoing .Though violence of any form is not accepted in society , in reality the fact is ,there are many violent practices against women that have social , cultural ,and religious sanction of the community . violence against women exosts in many forms and some of them are – domestic violence , rape and sexual assault ,prostitution and trafficking , forced marriage ,.. Although the above forms of violence are listed separately ,they are interlinked and they all are expressions of control and abuse of power over women.

    Domestic violence exists due to following reasons :- women are economically dependent on abusers ,lack of alternatives for women ,sense of powerlessness to escape ,cultural barriers ,social attitude ,and stigma isolate women seeking external help, women victims generally feels it is better to suffer in silence than to be separated ,women fail to understand that without help , violence get worse ,unaware of their legal provisions that are available to help them .One in seven women experiences domestic violence in Ireland .for women aged 15-44 , world wide acts of violence cause more death and disability then cancer , malaria ,traffic accidents .

    Stopping violence against women is very needful .Joining in the efforts to stop violence is every body’s responsibility .Governments , private enterprises , civil societies groups , communities ,and individual groups can all make essential contributions . Men and women must be active in encouraging respect for women and zero tolerance for violence . Cultural and religious leaders can send clear messages about the value of world free of violence against women .


    “Years of living dangerously” is a National Geographic documentary series which deals with the political realities of climate change. Their team, including David Lettermen visited India to document India’s rapid expansion towards industrialisation, actions to prevent climate change and most importantly to document actions taken by India to electrify rural India. The show is hosted by a famous T.V. show host David Letterman, who is an American and he emphasised that India is short in supplying electricity to around 300 million people which is the total population of U.S.A. even after using so much coal, but the minister of State with Independent Charge for Power, Coal, New and Renewable Energy and Mines, Piyush Goyal showed him how India is going to achieve its multi- billion solar plan by 2019. On the other side of the episode we saw how the political nexus between the electricity utility monopolies and the leadership has been able to reduce the solar installation in the states of Nevada and Florida with the help of local lobbyist. There have even been campaigns in America to change state laws through anti-solar ballot which are designed to appear pro-solar to the voters. The host was trying to act as a pessimist rather than an optimist towards India’s policy of replacing coal by solar energy but all his pessimism was blown away when the ministry showed him India’s ambitious plans of replacing 770 million incandescent bulbs with LED bulbs which will reduce the Carbon emission about 80 million ton a year. Funny part is that even after the explanation David Letterman scrutinized these facts. He then in witty way asked the minister about the plans for supplying electricity to 1.2 billion people. It was amazing this documentary makes it evident that India is doing more than its best according to its financial and technological capacity. Piyush Goyal burst his sarcastic bubble by showing him the images of New York and the misuse of electricity and in a humble yet firm voice, he urged all the developed nation to invest capitals in India for development of solar plants so that globalisation of solar energy can happen. He even went on and asked the developed nation of world to stop prohibiting India from using coal and requested them to be little more responsible. India has the power to go solar, we have the will determination and the grid to achieve our goals. Renewable energy revolution has already started in India. At the same time, developed countries like the United States need to play their role instead of letting politics negatively impact a pro-renewable policy.

    Autor - Piyush Tiwari, B.A.; LL.B. [2014-2019].


    Methane is the second most important manmade greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. It is responsible for more than a third of total anthropogenic climate forcing. Methane remains in the atmosphere for a much shorter span but is 70 times as potent a heat-trapping substance as carbon dioxide. Its ability to trap heat in the atmosphere, which is called its “global warming potential” is 21 times greater than of CO.

    The largest human source of methane is from the production, distribution and combustion of fossil fuels. This creates 33% of human methane emissions.Methane emissions get produced wherever there are fossil fuels. It gets released whenever fossil fuels get extracted from the earth. Whether it is natural gas, coal or petroleum.

    Coal is one of the most important source of methane emissions. In coal formation, pockets of methane get trapped around and within the rock. Coal mining related activities (extraction, crushing, distribution, etc.) release some of this trapped methane. Methane gets emitted from active underground and surface mines as well as abandoned ones.India is one of the largest coal mine methane emitting countries amongst The United States, Russia, China, Australia.

    On one hand if methane is a contributor to the greenhouse gases then on the other hand it is also of importance from economic and environment aspects such as improved mine safety, greater mine productivity, increased revenues and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

    It is said "When methane is released, it's a waste of energy. It's a product that has a value. It can be burnt quite cleanly," methane could be captured through pipelines and could be used for empowering equipment and generation of electricity. Thus, it is extremely important in handling such a commodity which is profitable as well as hazardous and demands clear safe handling.

    India houses the world’s fourth-largest coal reserves. The government has identified 26,000 square km of area for CBM operation with total estimated CBM Resources of 2,600 billion cubic meters (91.8 TCF). Of this, in-place reserves have been established at 9.9 TCF. However, CBM is currently produced from only four -- Jharia block in Jharkhand by ONGC, Raniganj East in West Bengal by Essar Oil Ltd, Raniganj South in West Bengal by Great Eastern Energy Corporation and Sohagpur West in Madhya Pradesh by RIL.

    This sector has been recognized so much profitable that it could cut down India’s import dependence for energy supply. But, the sector has slowed down the pace of coal bed methane extracting due to multiple reasons including overlapping with coal blocks, delay in land acquisition and statutory clearances, water handling problems and lack of gas infrastructure in CBM blocks.

    For instance, Great Eastern Energy Corporation Ltd (GEECL), a private company based in Gurgaon, Haryana, received licence to explore and extract CBM from Nagapattinam, Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu. The project had to be suspended because of the effects caused to the farmers and their agricultural lands, for which it did not get approval to drill the wells.

    To successfully avail maximum benefits out of the CBM the mine owners should get into the real practices right from the installation and operation of the project. It requires steps like- a through methane resource assessment and of course a ready market for methane. Government clearances should be allotted based on an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), making utmost confirmation where the project shouldn’t harm the environment, people and the ecosystems.

    There must be a check and balance between deriving economic benefits from a project and the potential harm that it can cause to the atmosphere by increasing the GHGs. The process of coal extraction has been into practice since decades and yet till now tons of methane gas must have been released into the atmosphere contributing to Global Warming. However, with better technologies and entering into voluntary Multilateral partnerships to curb global methane emissions like The Global Methane Initiative (GMI). Thus, both the ends could be met using a cost-effective method- increase in energy security and improvement in air quality.

    Author - R. Kavinesh, Student [B.A.LL.B. 2014-2019]


    India is a vast country and is the world’s largest democracy. It is the 2nd most populous country in the world with a population of around 1.345 billion people. India is a developing country and as such, it is difficult to maintain such a huge population.

    Such a huge population leads to different types of pollution. One of the most important issue is that of solid waste management. Indian metro cities produce about 10million tonnes of waste on a daily basis. But most of this waste is not treated or collected. The remaining part which is collected, ends up at the landfills. Although Supreme Court of India have laid down very specific guidelines as to how solid waste is to be treated, most of it is ignored. Most often these landfills are made near residential areas. This is very harmful and actions should be taken.

    Landfills are very dangerous. Not only does most of India’s waste end up at landfills, most of the garbage there remains untreated due to the long process between the laid down rules and the de facto management procedures. The rate of dumping becomes far greater than the rate of waste management. Moreover, these landfills are a major producer of greenhouse gases, mainly the highly flammable methane [CH4]. They also harbor pests, flies and other microorganisms which are responsible for the spread of various diseases.

    Most of the landfills in India are mismanaged and are operating well past their shelf life. They leech harmful chemicals and liquids into the groundwater thus contaminating it. There are rag pickers who make a living out of these landfills and often they are too uneducated to know how harmful it is. Plastic and metals are the major sources of calorific value of the waste. Since the highly combustible methane is there, often portions of the landfills catch fire. The fire department then has to take care of it. But these fires are very harmful and lead to severe air pollution; add to that the burning of the plastics.

    The metro cities are the major producers of solid waste. According to a census, urban India produces around 62 million tonnes of garbage each year. And this number is ever increasing. Out of this, 5.6 million tonnes is just plastic waste, 0.17 million tonnes is the bio-medical waste, 7.90 million tonnes is hazardous waste and 15lakh tonnes is e-waste.

    E-waste is becoming to be a new menace in the pollution sector. India has become a dumping ground of the old technology for the Western world. With the advancement of technology, newer models of phones or laptops or any other appliances are always popping up. People are always chasing the new, while throwing away the older models of such appliances. This is leading to an increase in e-waste. India is the fifth biggest producer of e-waste in the world and produces around 1.7 million tonnes of it annually. E-waste is mainly comprised of metals and plastic parts, which in may circumstances can be reused and recycled. But the management is often too slow, or as said earlier, the production of waste is greater then the rate of waste management.

    A lot of waste still remains untreated or collected. Researchers say that India contributes to around 0.6 tonnes of plastic waste into the oceans annually. The solid waste management rules of 2016 has made waste segregation mandatory for every waste generator be it an individual, community, society or an corporate office, but implementation remains poor. There is often lack of awareness amongst the people. Proper steps need to be taken to spread awareness. The management should also speed up their work and the landfills must be taken care of.